Acceptance testing is a kind of test, which is conducted on the software to test the acceptability of the software. The main objective behind acceptance testing is to test the compliance of the system with the requirements of the business. It helps in evaluating whether the system is eligible for being delivered or not.
As per ISTQB, acceptance testing is a kind of casual testing which focuses on the needs, processes of business and requirements of the users. It tells whether the system is able to satisfy the criteria for acceptance and allow the users, authorized entities or customers to manifest whether to accept the system or not.
In the manufacturing process of a system, separate units of a system are manufactured separately. These individual units are separated individually to evaluate them. The individual units are then, assembled to form a complete system.
Several tests are performed on the complete system in order to evaluate it all together. In the end, acceptance testing is performed on the complete system to confirm whether the system is eligible to be presented to the users or not.
Acceptance testing is the fourth stage or the last stage in the process of testing the software. It is performed after the testing of the system is done and prior to making the system available to the users.
What Is The Need To Perform Acceptance Tests?
Would you like to drive a car which is not tested? Or else, will you use a system which has not been evaluated.
The answer will obviously be a ‘no’.
Thus, acceptance testing is mandatory to be performed on the system before it is delivered to its users to ensure that the system is well-developed and fulfill the requirements of the users. The system goes through repetitive testing to make sure that it is eligible to be presented to the users.
The acceptance testing provides confidence to the developers. Along with this, acceptance testing makes sure that the product works well and in the manner, it is designed to. Also, the testing ensures that the product fulfills the demands and requirements of its users. Acceptance testing is also carried out to ensure that the product is in accordance with the standards of the present day market. It comprehends whether the product is able to compete with the other products which are similar to it or not.
Carrying Out The Acceptance Testing
The activities in the test of acceptance testing are performed in different phases. Initially, the basic tests are carried out. If the test results of the basic tests are satisfactory, then the complex tests are performed. The attributes of acceptance testing are given below;
• Test category acceptance,
• Environment of operation,
• The ID of the test case,
• Title of the test,
• The objective of the test,
• The procedure of the test,
• Schedule of the test,
• Resources of the test.
The activities of the acceptance test are made to conclude anyone from the following;
• Make the requested modification in the system and then, evaluate and accept it,
• Accept the system in the manner it was delivered,
• Reject the system.
The test report generated by the acceptance testing consists of an identifier of the report, a summary of the outcomes, recommendation, variations, and the decision of approval.
Acceptance testing is performed on a system to ensure that the system is eligible to be used by its users. In addition, the testing comprehends whether the system is in accordance with the current standard of the market. In also gives confidence in the product.
Acceptance testing is needed to be performed several times as all the cases of test cannot be executed in a single test. The procedure of acceptance testing is performed with the help of procedures of testing which are predefined.
The predefined procedures direct the person who is conducting the test through the various processes of testing and tells him which data should be used.
The actual results are saved for comparison with the expected results. If the actual results go in accordance with the expected results, the test passes otherwise, it fails.
The main processes, which take place in acceptance testing, are as follows:
• Execution of the tests with the help of data, which is predefined,
• Recording of the actual results,
• Comparison of the actual results with the expected results,
• Determination of the results of the test.
The main aim of conducting acceptance testing is to gain confidence in the product. In addition, it ensures that the product is able to meet the non-functional and functional needs.
Acceptance Testing In SDLC
Acceptance testing is a process of testing the system for its authenticity and acceptability. The acceptance testing is executed by the client to check whether the system is able to fulfill the requirements or not.
The functional testers and developers are the people who validate the system as per its functional specifications. They understand the requirement of the users and develop a test in accordance with that.
Acceptance testing plays an important role in the software development life cycle. Before jumping to the role of acceptance testing in SDLC, let us learn what SDLC or software development life cycle is.
What is the Software Development Life Cycle?
SDLC or software development life cycle is the developmental process, which involves the stages or phases present in the software building. There are several models of SDLC and the process of each model differs from the other.
Role of acceptance testing in SDLC
Acceptance testing helps in performing the activities of SDLC in a precise and efficient manner. The acceptance testing understands the plan of the project and make sure that the system is able to fulfill the requirements of the plan of the project.
It checks the system to make sure that the system is in accordance with the demands of the users. If there are any flaws of bugs in the system, acceptance testing detects them and thus, the system can be developed.
Also, the acceptance testing is carried out by experts who are not a part of the organization, who has developed the system. In such a case, the experts provide valuable advice or recommendation which help in the development of the system or the software.
In addition, the tests are scheduled and repeated acceptance testing is done for different cases of the test. The results of the actual tests are recorded and matched with the expected results. The results are then analyzed and the system or software is evaluated.
Acceptance testing is performed after the individual units of the system have been assembled. The complete system is evaluated for its compliance and authenticity.
This helps the developers to find the flaws and bugs in the system and to detect whether the units are compatible with each other or not as a complete unit.
Acceptance testing helps in the development and maintenance of the system. Acceptance testing is performed to gain confidence in the system.
Once the testers have performed acceptance testing on the system, they can comprehend whether the system is in accordance with the current standards of the market. If the product fails to satiate the current market standards, it can be developed.
Also, the testing helps the developers to know whether the product will be able to beat the other similar products standing in the competition.
One may conclude that acceptance testing plays a very crucial role in the SDLC.
How is Acceptance Testing Beneficial?
The final process in the successful implementation of a system is acceptance testing. Execution of acceptance testing of a system is critical. Acceptance testing is done to make sure that the system meets the requirements of its users.
It helps the developers of the software to identify the issues or flaws in the system and fix them. This helps the developers in presenting a system which fulfills the expectations of the user.
It is necessary that the system fulfills the needs of the user. In addition, the system needs to be useful to its users in their daily activities. When acceptance testing is performed on the system, it ensures a painless and successful release of the system in the market.
Benefits of Acceptance Testing
• Elimination of post-implementation fixes
Releasing the system in the market without the system being tested is not a good option to go for. There might be some issues or fixes required by the system, which are, needed to be addressed before the system goes live. Therefore, it is crucial to perform acceptance testing prior to releasing the system in the market.
• Development of the software
Acceptance testing is applicable to all the methods used in the implementation of the system, including agile. It helps in the development of the software and plays a major role in SDLC.
• Satisfaction to the clients
Acceptance testing is beneficial to everyone is one way or the other. The expectations of the clients get satiated when their demands are met in an efficient manner. Also, the clients are able to experience a better quality of service.
• Early detection of the product’s quality
The quality of the product gets determined at an early phase in the development or implementation of the software. In addition, the need for fixing the system after it goes live gets eliminated. Acceptance testing is also executed during several stages of development of the system. It renders opportunities to the users to fix the issues at an early stage in the process of system development.
Acceptance testing tries its best to keep the costs required for the maintenance of the system as low as possible. It is cost-efficient to fix the flaws or issues of the system at an early stage. It is challenging to fix the issue when the amount of coding is more.
• Increased usability and robustness of the system
The feedbacks derived from acceptance testing can be fed into following iterations. This will help in the development of the system by increasing its usability and robustness.
• Successful implementation of the system
Several tests related to functionality are performed on individual units of the system. But, when the units are assembled to form a system, some challenges or issues might arise. The issues which were not found or present during the development of units can be found during the integration of the units. It is crucial to perform acceptance testing to ensure that the system is implemented successfully without any issues.
• Elimination of the failures
When the system is not integrated properly, the system is not able to perform well. There can be wastage of resources, legal risks, and additional costs involved. Acceptance testing helps in eliminating these failures. It comprehends the interface of the software before the implementation of the application.
Acceptance Testing vs. User Acceptance Testing
Acceptance testing is a kind of test performed on the system to check for its compliance and acceptance. It is performed in the end, after all the other tests have been executed on the system. It is the last stage in the process of testing the software.
The individual units of a system are manufactured separately. This makes it important to test the integration of these individual units. Also, the system made by assembling the units in a proper manner should be checked to make sure that these units complement each other.
On the other hand, user acceptance testing is performed by the end-users of the system. The end-users of the system can be customers or customers of the customers. It is performed by the clients or end-users of the software to check whether the system fulfills their requirements or not.
The two kinds of the testing process, User acceptance testing and acceptance testing checks for the acceptance of the system. But, there are some differences between the two tests.
Let us talk about the differences in detail.
• The executor of the test
Acceptance testing is performed by developers or the employees of the organization who has made the system. Also, it can be performed by professionals or experts who are not a part of the organization who has developed the system.
The developers make the system as per their understanding. They code the system as per their own outlook of the user’s requirements. The developers test the system for its functionality and usage.
On the contrary, user acceptance testing is executed by the end-users of the system. The customer for whom the system has been made carries out the test. When the people who are going to use the system in their daily routine perform the test, they will be able to provide better feedback.
• The stage at which the test is executed
Acceptance testing is usually carried out at the end after all the other tests have been executed on the system. It is the last test which is performed on the system. Sometimes, acceptance testing can also be carried out on individual units to check their functionality and usage. It can also be performed during the process of integration of the individual units of the system.
User acceptance testing is executed after the integration of the individual units has been done. It is done by the end-users of the system to check whether the system is able to fulfill the requirements of its users or not.
• Purpose of the test
Acceptance testing is performed to validate the system. It tests the system for its compatibility and functionality. The faults, issues or bugs are tested in acceptance testing.
Also, the system is tested for its standards in the market and whether it will be able to stand firm in the competition with other similar products or not.
User Acceptance testing is performed to test whether the system fulfills the demands and requirements of its users or not. The system should be helpful to the users in their daily routine.
The end-users test the system whether it is able to meet the objectives of the business or not. it is performed to ensure that the product delivers what is expected by its users.
Types of Acceptance Testing
The basic technique of acceptance testing is quite easy to make out. You just need to boast a little knowledge of the types of acceptance testing in order to understand the whole procedure of acceptance testing.
Here in this guide, we have come up with a detailed analysis of different types of acceptance testing. Let’s take a tour of them.
There are primarily two types of acceptance testing. This chart will help you to understand them well.
This is actually on-site testing. Experienced and skilled testers execute it on the site of the developers. This is executed at the final step of a software development strategy, just before it gets handed over to the consumer.
This type of testing is quite efficient in fixing defects and bugs. It also helps in optimizing the product’s usefulness. Since it is executed in the developers’ site, it is also known as an in-house testing method. It consists of two different approaches, black box and white box.
The main objective of alpha testing is to get a transparent idea about the user experience while using the product. Alpha testing is conducted in two different phases.
First, internal developers perform the test, then the skilled testers run a test session and finally upon receiving a satisfactory result from the test, it is good to go.
This is the off-site testing section of acceptance testing. It is executed at the client’ site. Stakeholders and end users run this test. This test includes a thorough examination of the developed software before it hits the market.
There are some more types of acceptance testing. Let’s check them out.
User Acceptance Testing
This particular type of acceptance testing is executed at the primary level when an internal employee of the development agency runs a check of the basic programming of the software. This requires a high knowledge of the specific domain. It is completely dependent on the compliance of the system on which the trial test takes place. Often, the client recommends the same.
Operational Acceptance Testing
This particular type of testing is executed in order to check the operational attributes of the developed software. This is important to identify the efficiency of the portability, functional balance and reliance capacity as well.
Regulation Acceptance Testing
Testers run this specific check in order to figure out how perfectly the software is putting up with the regulatory standards, law and safety guidelines set by the government.
Contract Acceptance Testing
Skilled testers conduct this particular check. This is executed to ensure the proper use of the accepted norms. It passes through a thorough check of the parameters that were mentioned in the contract before the delivery of the product.
Apart from those, sometimes the black box testing is also classified as an acceptance testing. It can thoroughly check the functionalities of the software. This is quite a secretive test as the testers are also unable to view the internal coding while running this specific check. However, it allows the user to check the criteria that the specific software must meet.
Hope this guide helps you to understand the different types of acceptance testing and the process of their execution.
In order to ensure the right functionality of software, all the above-mentioned types of acceptance testing are needed to be executed.
User Acceptance Checkilist: What It Holds?
Any newly developed software before rolling out into the market should be tested for its efficiency. User acceptance testing (UAT) carries out this work. UAT is the final and crucial step of any software project.
During this testing, actual software users are involved. They test the software’s ability to work according to the specification of its designing in real-world scenarios. This testing can be performed by making it available as a beta trial on the internet. It can also be carried out as in-house testing using actual software users as a team.
UAT is laid out strategically into different steps to execute the testing. These steps are executed according to the UAT checklist. The checklist has certain criteria, which the software user and tester have to look into the application and report.
The purpose of the checklist is to ensure that appropriate actions have been taken to perform a UAT on the application. The steps involved in checklists are:
WEB PROJECT TEAM PREPARATIONS
UAT TEAM FORMATION AND PREPARATION
EVALUATION OF TEST AND REPORTING
For any work planning is crucial. Without a well laid out plan, the testing will become tedious, time-consuming and objective-less. Even in the checklist, the planning of UAT is the first step of the procedure.
UAT planing checlist
This is the preparation stage, which will help the project team determine whether UAT is a necessity for the application. In this step, the project team has to review the impact of this software on the business area. They should also review the effect of changes made to existing software on the business. The team should develop a
Web project team preparations checklist
The UAT is designed by the project team handling the application. This requires the members involved in the UAT execution to have a clear understanding of their responsibility. The checklist has criteria to track the involvement of the project team in the task of UAT.
This step evaluates the awareness of the project team in advising changes to the application processes. It also evaluates the awareness of the project team in supporting the testing issues and resolving the website bugs.
UAT team formation and preparation checklist
UAT is carried out on actual software users like business analysts to understand the functionality of the application in real-world scenarios. This step requires the formation of the UAT user team. It evaluates the understanding of the team to execute the test and documentation of all the input and output sources.
The ability of the UAT user team to verify the performance of the application and the readiness of the application to be put into the market is also evaluated.
Test preparation checklist
This checklist basically evaluates the readiness of the application and the users to perform UAT. The criteria laid include
The availability of input data for testing
Defined test procedure
Creation of test cases to explore the chances of contradiction between software products and requirement
Test execution checklist
This step has the criteria to evaluate whether the UAT was performed according to the test plan. It also includes the documentation of all the steps used for testing, defects detected and review of the users.
Evaluation of test and reporting checklist
This checklist has criteria laid to evaluate the performance of the software. It reports the identification and rectification of defects. It also documents the evaluation and judgment of the software by users.
Understanding The Concept of Acceptance Testing Precisely
As we have learned about the concept of acceptance testing, let us take an example to understand the process precisely.
Let us take the example of a mobile phone. We all are familiar with the device and its components. Thus, it would be easy to understand the process.
The applications on the mobile phones are becoming complex nowadays. The developers are working hard on the software and applications of phones. They want their product to be on the top of the competition. To achieve a higher rank in the market and to satisfy their customers, the developers make their best efforts.
Acceptance testing in a mobile phone
The circuit or motherboard, display, speaker, battery, microphone are the components of a mobile phone. These components are manufactured separately at different places. After these individual components are tested for their functionality, they are passed for system integration.
Once, the assembling of the components is done in a proper manner, the product is ready. As all the components were checked before assembling them together, the product must not contain any error.
But, on the contrary, there can be some errors which might arise after assembling the components together. These errors arise due to the lack of compliance of the components with each other. Else, the system might face some issues because of the unsuccessful integration of components.
It becomes important to check the system for its acceptability and compliance before it goes live. A product which is not tested cannot be present to its users. If some issues are found in the product after it goes live, the reputation of the company decreases.
Acceptance testing generates a report about the status of the product. The report includes the following attributes:
• Date: date of execution of the test.
• Current day’s details of test execution: it tells the number of tests which have been passed, failed or are in the process of being checked in the current day.
• Details of all the test executions: it tells about the total number of tests which have been passed, failed, overall tests, tests which are in progress and those which are pending.
• Details about the defect: the amount of defects identified by the testing is shown in the report.
The execution of testing should be done on a regular basis to make sure that the execution of tests is on point.
Summary of the report
At the end of the testing process, a report is made which summarizes the entire phase of acceptance testing. It consists of details such as the activities of testing which are conducted, criterions met, specifying the requirements, results of test execution, deviations from expected results and so on.
The deviation from the expected result is stated in this part. This helps in improving the process of test planning.
The results of the tests are stated and reviewed.
Evaluation of the test results is done and the success rate of the test is determined.
Based on the reports of testing, recommendations are made. Suggestions for improvement of the product are focused upon. Also, whether the product should go live or not is decided.
The efforts spent on all the activities are explained.
Once, the product has passed acceptance testing, it is recommended to be launched in the market. Prior to launching the product, it needs to sign a sign-off report.