End-To-End Testing: Top Tutorial

What is End-to-End Testing?

End-to-end testing is a technique that checks the flow of software or an application in the system. The technique of end-to-end testing examines the flow of the software from the beginning to the end of the task.

This technique checks that the behavior of the application from the beginning till the end fulfills the demands or requirements and the purpose of the creation of the software. The purpose of this technique of end-to-end testing is to determine the dependency of the system.

Also, this technique promises the integrity of the data and information amidst several systems and the components of the system.

The software is evaluated to check whether it is able to perform complex functions or not. These complex functions involve interacting with other systems, networks, databases, interfaces, applications and other software.

The technique of end-to-end testing is a kind of software evaluation. The software under evaluation is validated and also, the integration of the software with other interfaces is also tested. 

End-To-End testing is like evaluating the scenario of a complete production. Apart from the software of the system, the technique also tests data and batch processing from downstream and upstream systems.

It utilizes all the data and information about the software which is available and also, tests the environments to enable settings in the actual time. The testers use the technique of end-to-end testing in order to check the software from the beginning to the end.

They do not want any issues to arise in the software due to their mistakes or negligence.

Thus, to ensure that there are no mistakes or flaws in the software, the testers use the process of end-to-end testing. As the name suggests, the testing is done completely, from the beginning to the end.

This makes sure that all the aspects and working of the software in the system is checked and evaluated. Also, this makes it possible to check the versatility and functionality of the software.

Usually, end-to-end testing is performed after the system and functional testing of the application has been performed.

The technique of end-to-end testing usually focuses on the functions, conditions, and the cases for the test. The end-to-end testing checks the actions which are needed to be performed by the software in order to validate it.

This involves categorizing the features of the software of the system to check the sub-systems which are connected to it.

The technique maintains a record of all the actions which are performed by the software. Also, it evaluates the data which is given to the software and the data which is received from it.

It searches for the interconnection between the distinct functions of the users, their behavior, and interdependency. Specific conditions are required to be set for each of the functions. The conditions such as timing and data have an impact on the functions of the software.

These conditions are considered as the basic characters for determining the functions of the software. In addition, several factors create a case to be tested in end-to-end testing.

For every situation, a set of tests should be created in order to test the working of the functions of the system software. For every condition, a specific cause for the test should be performed.

The end-to-end testing validates the major software of the system, and also the interrelated sub-systems. Its major focus is to validate the end-to-end processes in the testing of the software.

While the testing is being performed, all the processes in the interface are taken into consideration. It also includes the processes taking place in the background.

The end-to-end testing is performed after all the other software testing has been carried out on the software. End-To-End testing checks the efficiency and functionality of the software.

Why End-to-End Testing is Important?

The software of the systems of the current day is complicated. Also, the systems are connected with each other and with several sub-systems. There can be cases when the sub-system is different from the main system or else, the sub-system belongs to some other organization.

If there is a failure in any one of the sub-systems, the whole network of the system would collapse. This can be a threat to the organization. Thus, in order to avoid this threat or risk, the technique of end-to-end testing can be used.

The technique of end-to-end testing checks and evaluates the complete flow of the software within the system. It is a very helpful tool in determining the issues within the system and its sub-systems.

End-to-end testing is very useful to check the validity of the software in the system. It ensures the health of the software by testing the software from the beginning to the end.

Given below are some major points which throw light on the importance of end-to-end testing:

End-to-end testing tests the processes taking place in the background

End-to-end testing helps in evaluating the processes which are taking part in the background of the system or at the database level. The foundation of the software is laid on the structural databases and the processes, which are taking place in the background.

Verifying the background processes and the structural databases will help us to know the health of the software and its functionality. Based on this verification, the level of complexity of the functions, which can be performed by the software, can be determined.

End-to-end testing promises experience and interaction

This testing technique helps the tester to check the aspects of the front-end and user interface of the software or the application. It makes sure that the software communicates with the other system and the sub-systems efficiently. Also, it provides a constant experience in various environments and platforms.

End-to-end testing identifies the issues in different environments

With the help of end-to-end testing, the software can be tested based on cloud, heterogeneous, distributed and SOA environments. It helps the testers to detect the issues in the software, which includes several components.

The technique conducts several repeated checks at distinct processes and places

The technique of end-to-end testing provides the ability to perform repeated checks at different points in the process of testing the application. It helps in verifying the complete flow of the system and its sub-systems.  Also, it multiplies the coverage of the test.

The testing checks the nature of the application in different systems

When the testing and evaluation of the nature of the application in several domains, system, architecture, and workflows need to be done, end-to-end testing is used. The technique is useful in testing the functioning of the application and its response towards different processes.

This technique is scalable

The technique of end-to-end testing helps the users to respond and adjust according to the altering needs of the business at a good pace. It increases the agility of the entire process of the test.

The end-to-end technique checks help to maintain data integrity

The technique checks the flow of the software from its initiation till its end and tests for its expected behavior. The reason behind end-to-end testing is to ensure that the integrity of the data is maintained amidst the system and its components.

The end-to-end testing covers all the selections of the software

The end-to-end technique checks all the components of the software and ensures that all the components work in accordance with each other.

It ensures that all the pieces of the software are compatible with each other and when they are assembled, they give efficient software.

How End to End Testing is Performed?

The first process of End to End testing is the design framework

We will investigate all the 3 classes one by one:

1) User Functions

Following activities ought to be executed as a piece of structure User Functions:

Posting highlights of the product frameworks and their interconnected sub-frameworks. For any capacity, monitor the activities executed just as Input and Output information. Discover the relations, if any between various Users' capacities. Discover the idea of various client capacities,-for example in the event that they are autonomous or are reusable.

Conditions Depending On User Function.

As a piece of structure conditions, do the accompanying:

  • For every client work, assemble a lot of conditions
  • Conditions ought to incorporate parameters like planning, information conditions, and grouping

2) Conditions

Following exercises ought to be executed as a piece of structure conditions dependent on client capacities: For every single client works, a lot of conditions ought to be ready. Timing, Data conditions and other factors that influence client capacities can be considered as parameters.

3) Test Cases

Following elements ought to be considered for structure experiments:

For each situation, at least one experiment ought to be made to test every single usefulness of the client's capacities. Each and every condition ought to be enrolled as a different experiment.

How about we abridge the key exercises that are necessary to incorporate amid the start to finish testing.

  • Altogether break down the necessities before beginning the testing stage.
  • Setting up the test condition following every one of the essentials.
  • Dissect the product and equipment necessities (both least just as prescribed design).
  • Concentrate the primary framework alongside associated subsystems.
  • Rundown down the duties of all frameworks included
  • Rundown down the testing techniques alongside the portrayal of the principles to be pursued.

Plan the experiments and keeping in mind that doing as such additionally follow the prerequisite grid.

End-to-End Testing Methods

Horizontal End to End testing

This technique is utilized in all respects normally. It happens on a level plane over the setting of different applications.
This strategy can without much of a stretch happen in a single ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) application.

Take a case of the electronic use of an internet requesting framework. The entire procedure will incorporate records, stock status of the items just as transportation subtleties.

Vertical End to End testing:

In this technique, every one of the exchanges of any application is checked and assessed directly from all the way. Every individual layer of the application is tried beginning start to finish.

Take a case of an online application that uses HTML codes for achieving web servers. In such cases, API is required to create SQL codes against the database.

All these mind-boggling processing situations will require legitimate approval and devoted testing. Therefore, this strategy is significantly more troublesome.

'White Box testing' just as 'Discovery testing' both are related with a start to finish testing. Or on the other hand, as it were, we can say, this is the blend of advantages of both white box testing and discovery testing.

Contingent upon the sort of programming being created, at various dimensions, both the testing strategies, for example, white box and discovery testing are utilized as and when required.

Fundamentally, End to End test performs practically just as the building approach for any product or projects to approve framework capacities.

Testers, similar to End to End testing, since composing experiments from the client's point of view and in a genuine situation, can stay away from the two basic errors. For example 'missing a bug' and 'composing experiments that don't confirm genuine situations'.

This gives analyzers, a massive feeling of achievement.

Metrics For End to End Testing

Programming Testing Metric is to be characterized as a quantitative measure that gauges the advancement, quality, and soundness of a product testing exertion. Metric characterizes in quantitative terms how much a framework, framework segment, or procedure has a given property.

There are many metrics present for an End to End Testing. Following are the Key Metrics for End to End Testing.

Metrics for End to End TestingTest Case Planning Status Test cases help control the analyzer through a grouping of ventures to approve whether a product application is free of bugs and filling in as required by the end client. Figuring out how to compose experiments requires fundamental composition aptitudes, meticulousness, and a decent comprehension of the application under test (AUT).

Regularly, experiments for a given module or some portion of an application, are gathered into a test suite. As a general rule, a test session will incorporate many experiments as there will, for the most part, be more than one explicit situation to be tried.

Something imperative to follow is at what is the present condition of the experiment readiness. The analyzer can follow this in the type of diagram. It gives a thought of the advancement of experiment arrangement (current versus arranged).


Weekly Test Progress

The goal of this measurement is to analyze the progress and details of your completed tests week-by-week. Ideally, you’ll want to track the percentage of total tests completed, as well as the number of ones that passed and failed.

Programming testing week by week status report helps in following the productivity of the QA (Quality Analyst) group and furthermore helps in keeping up the work process.

For example, on the off chance that the status report sent by the testing group has numerous deformities which are legitimate then it is considered as great work done by them and improvement group needs to see whether those imperfections are a result of certain prerequisites hole or are the ones which neglected to play out the ideal usefulness.

On the off chance that it is a prerequisite hole, at that point, that report will be sent to BA's (Business Analysts) group to examine and they will contact the customer to survey and give the vital data.

Thus, all the work done and absconds found in that specific achievement are followed in an appropriate manner and furthermore arranging is accomplished for future achievements, whenever required.

Defects Status & Details

The status report ought to be set up on a regular routine to demonstrate the experiment execution status just as imperfections found and logged according to their seriousness.

Week after week, the level of the open and shut deformities ought to be determined. Likewise, in view of deformity seriousness and need, abandons status ought to be followed on week by week premise.

It gives a level of open and shut imperfections by the week. Week-wise imperfections circulation depends on the seriousness and need.

Environmental availability

This analyzes the time assigned for performing start to finish testing in the test condition and real operational time of the testing in nature.

It assesses the real working of the framework in the genuine condition including system correspondence, association with the database framework, and so forth.

Consequently, this testing might be viewed as best for the business arrival of the product.

Test Execution

A fundamental estimation of testing movement which records what number of tests were really led and what number of named passed, fizzled, blocked, deficient, or unexecuted.

A primary advantage of test execution is that it is anything but difficult to imagine and comprehend by testing groups. Measurements incorporate Test Execution Status, Test Run Results, and Test Results by Day.

These are the most used metrics for the end to end testing by the software companies.

End-to-End Testing Automation

When the procedure of testing is executed automatically, using an automation tool, it is end-to-end automation.

In end-to-end testing automation, the software inputs the data to be tested in the system, which is being tested. Also, the automation software compares the derived results from the expected results and then, generates the reports of the test by analyzing the results.

Testing automation does not require any human interference of intervention. End-to-end testing automation eliminates the necessity of manual testing.

This, in turn, increases the speed at which the procedure of testing takes place. End-to-end testing automation increases the coverage of the test and reduces the risk of errors, which is possible in manual testing.

It is possible to test the applications, which are multilingual with the help of end-to-end testing automation. Also, when the amount of data is in huge amount, it is preferable to take the help of end-to-end testing automation.

End-to-end testing automation is necessary for regular and time-bound delivery of results. There are several tasks related to the testing of the software, which is boring and consumes a lot of time to be performed manually.

It is not always feasible to perform these laborious tasks manually. Also, when the test is performed manually, there is a risk that some flaws might remain undetected or neglected. Thus, end-to-end test automation is proved effective in performing the tests efficiently and in a precise manner.

Once, the end-to-end automated tests have been initiated, they run at a good pace and in a repeated manner. Even, the minute errors in the application can lead to bigger mishaps. This makes it necessary to carry out the procedure of testing in an efficient manner in order to avoid the risks of errors taking place.

End-to-end testing automation validates the software before it is released. It tests that all the functions of the software are working appropriately. It checks whether the functions are meeting the requirements for which the software is created, or not.

The applications are developing at a quick pace. This created a rapid demand for some testing of continuous testing techniques to eliminate bottlenecks. End-to-end testing automation tests the applications at regular intervals of time and ensures that the functions of the software are as expected.

The technique of end-to-end testing automation can be adopted by the organizations that require the tests to be conducted at every level in the process of development of the software. The tests, which are conducted at regular intervals, benefit the organizations by eliminating the bottlenecks of performance.

The scope of end-to-end testing automation is increasing with the progress in time. The testers or engineers are required to be careful while making the choice of the automation tool. The automation tool should be cost-effective and user-friendly. The efficiency and functionality of the automation tool play an important role in the test automation process.

The testers of an application can jot down several tests and their results on paper or in a document. Then, they will study and evaluate the application for its flaws and errors. But in real life, no one has this much time to perform such a laborious and time-consuming process.

Also, not all the bugs or defects in the application get caught by the testers. In such cases, the tests take the aid from end-to-end testing automation to check the software. The testers do not need to write the codes for the tests, which are required to be performed.

They can get their testing done with the help of the automation tool without putting in any effort. The productivity of the testing scenario increases by a manifold with the help of end-to-end testing automation.  The automated testing is done in a user-friendly environment.

The automated testing tool verifies all the elements and aspects while performing end-to-end testing.

End-To-End Testing And System Testing

Looking up the Internet searches, it seems that there is a fine line between testing methodologies like end-to-end and system testing.

This article might help you understand that both are essential, yet entirely different techniques. During the software development cycle, there are a series of tests to be performed in order to ensure its proper working.

Software undergoes the following steps to prove its worth;

Let us see what system testing and end-to-end testing are, to know how different they are.

System testing

As indicated in the block diagram, system testing is what software developers do before they hand over the system to the users for acceptance testing. The entire system is tested with respect to the requirements. This is the most important part of testing, as the bulk of your testing activity happens at this level.  The shown four levels of tests are done separately for different parts of the system.

This means that the entire system is dissected into blocks while performing system testing.  And each of these blocks is subjected to testing.

Here, most of the functionalities are tested using ‘Black box testing’, which means you don’t require prior knowledge about the internals of the system. On the other hand, ‘White box testing’ doesn’t need much knowledge about the internals.

Both System testing and Acceptance testing involves a combination of White box testing and Black box testing, the latter being in majority. Requirement specifications, as well as System specifications, are two divisions under System testing. The first one tests whether all the requirements that need to be fulfilled by the system under test. The second one is concerned about system design.

In addition, there are a whole bunch of other tests that can be done during System testing, the purposes of which are mentioned below.

End-to-end testing

Another important stage of the software development cycle is end-to-end testing. This is real-world user testing which ensures the functionality and performance of the application under test. In this case, we test the entirety of the application involving the front end and the back end.

We consider the system as one entity; not breaking it into its sub-systems or blocks; take the perspective of the user into consideration and see how the user is actually going to experience it. End-to-end testing makes sure that the system behaves as expected.

This testing is important, as it makes sure that everything is working together with all the associated technology. It takes place in the actual environment that the users are going to be using (whereas, system testing is not done in user-accessible platforms).

End-to-end integration tests are required to tackle the issues the users are facing. It does a critical unit test on all its units. This is similar to what a user might do. It is possible for you to run your app in a real-world, maybe a browser that you use.

As users, we test the functioning of a website by opening it and trying out all the functionalities or buttons available. Take the example of an e-commerce application, like Amazon.
steps as a user

We do these steps as users. This is exactly what is done during end-to-end testing too. Here, test results must be equal to the expected results for our satisfactory use.

Selenium and Cypress are common environments, which are used for this purpose. These environments check whether the users are experiencing what they are expecting.

On contrary to System testing, end-to-end testing uses Black box testing. It ensures that the ‘flow’ is maintained in the entire system, and also that all the integrated components are working as expected.

End To End Testing Framework

System and the subsystems testing

The system of an application is the functional unit of that specific application. The communication or the relations of the system with the database flow, networks it is connected to, and its hardware are assessed from the start until the end. It has many subsystems working along with it in the same place or interlinked over.

The application after being built goes through the ample steps of functional testing and system testing and then comes to the end to end testing. It disposes of the dependencies of the system and checks precisely that information is shared between its various peripherals involved within. It eases the testing of the many subsystems which are involved in various levels with it, making it complex and which is difficult to be tested.

Vertical end to end testing

All the difficult computing that demands an accurate validation and committed testing method are done in this vertical end to end tests. It enables the complete and sequential steps of testing and verifying in layers of scrutiny from the start to an end with all the transactions and processes being checked precisely.

Black box testing

Renown as behavioral testing. It does not need the basic knowledge of the internal works of the application system, or the programming code is not assessed to actually test a system. It is named the black box as it is a tester that does not see inside and yet carries out the tests and corrects the performance errors, errors in the output and inputs, terminating and initializing errors and the errors in missing a function.

White-box testing

The assessment of the internal structures of the system under being tested is seen in the test cases of the white block testing. Also named as clear box testing or glass box testing it has the implementing knowledge of the system it is working on along with the stipulated programming code to run the test and forecast an output. This tester involves the deep in of the system working on and covers the overall testing and one of the efficient ways of testing

Horizontal end to end testing

This process actually involves the user approach to the main level. It allows the user navigation to through the system, estimating the expectations and the bugs in it. It is a user-oriented and well-utilized testing process.

What and when to use

The horizontal testing is comparable to the black box testing and the vertical testing to the white box testing. Horizontal testing comprehends the different aspects of testing different areas in the system, whereas the vertical end to end testing uses all the different ways to test the single aspect effectively.

End to end testing framework:

The framework of the end to end testing has three components comprising. They are:

  • user functions 
  • conditions 
  • test cases

User functions

To build a user function of the system, it is necessary to have an idea of the independent and reusable user functions. Tracking of the database, the data entering and leaving, and the role of the system. Description of each system and its subsystems touched. The communication and the relations between the connected subsystems.


Building a set of conditions for the test is in two simple steps, allotment of conditions for each function or feature present. A process, the database and the time can be defined as the parameters in setting a condition.


Test case

One or more test cases are built usually every condition can be a base to build a test case. The test case scenario is primarily needed to conduct the test as it holds up the ultimate keys of the test. It is a set of variables through which the end to end test finds the problems in the designs, works of the system.

Running a test case is easy as it needs to start with the test plan scenario view, the plan of want to carry on and can execute the run of the selected plan of the test case.

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Grzegorz Kłos
Grzegorz Kłos - Apphawks Co-founder
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